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foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with
foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or
bones, generally including claws or
Study on some Caucasian males (men age 35.5 years) found that a man's
foot length was 26.3 cm with a standard deviation of 1.2 cm.
foot can be subdivided into the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot:
The hindfoot is composed of the talus or
bone and the calcaneus or heel
bone. The two long
bones of the lower leg, the tibia and fibula, are connected to the top of the talus to form the
ankle. Connected to the talus at the subtalar
joint, the calcaneus, the largest
bone of the
foot, is cushioned inferiorly by a layer of fat.
The five irregular
bones of the midfoot, the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform
bones, form the arches of the
foot which serves as a shock absorber. The midfoot is connected to the hind- and fore-foot by muscles and the
The forefoot is composed of five toes and the corresponding five proximal long
bones forming the metatarsus. Similar to the fingers of the hand, the
bones of the toes are called phalanges and the big toe has two phalanges while the other four toes have three phalanges. The
joints between the phalanges are called interphalangeal and those between the metatarsus and phalanges are called metatarsophalangeal (MTP).
This leaves humans more vulnerable to medical problems that are caused by poor leg and
foot alignments. Also, the wearing of shoes, sneakers and boots can impede proper alignment and movement within the
foot. For example, high heels are known to throw off the natural weight balance (this can also affect the lower back). For the sake of posture, flat soles and heels are advised.
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