Finally.. a laser technology to eliminate toenail fungus
In human anatomy, the
joint is formed where the
foot and the leg meet. The
ankle, or talocrural
joint, is a synovial hinge
joint that connects the distal ends of the tibia and fibula in the lower limb with the proximal end of the talus
bone in the
foot.The articulation between the tibia and the talus bears more weight than between the smaller fibula and the talus.
The lateral malleolus of the fibula and the medial malleolus of the tibia along with the inferior surface of the distal tibia articulate with three facets of the talus. These surfaces are covered by cartilage.
The anterior talus is wider than the posterior talus. When the
dorsiflexed , the wider part of the superior talus moves into the articulating surfaces of the tibia and fibula, creating a more stable
joint than when the
foot is plantar flexed.
ligament supports the medial side of the
joint, and is attached at the medial malleolus of the tibia and connect in four places to the sustentaculum tali of the calcaneus, calcaneonavicular
ligament, the navicular tuberosity, and to the medial surface of the talus.
The anterior and posterior talofibular
ligaments support the lateral side of the
joint from the lateral malleolus of the fibula to the dorsal and ventral ends of the talus.
ligament is attached at the lateral malleolus and to the lateral surface of the calcaneus.
Most traumatic incidents involving the
ankle result in
sprains. Symptoms of an
fracture can be similar to those of
sprains (pain, hematoma) or there may be an abnormal position, abnormal movement or lack of movement (if there is an accompanying
dislocation), or the patient may have heard a crack.
On clinical examination, it is important to evaluate the exact location of the pain, the range of motion and the condition of the nerves and vessels. It is important to palpate the calf
bone (fibula) because there may be an associated
fracture proximally (Maisonneuve
fracture), and to palpate the sole of the
foot to look for a Jones
fracture at the base of fifth metatarsal (avulsion
ankle injuries for
fracture is done with the Ottawa
ankle rules, a set of rules that were developed to minimize unnecessary X-rays. On X-rays, there can be a
fracture of the medial malleolus, the lateral malleolus, or the anterior or posterior margin. If both malleoli are broken, this is called a bimalleolar
fracture (some of them are called Pott's
fractures). If the posterior portion of the talus is also
fractured, this is called a trimalleolar
fractures are classified according to Weber, depending on their position relative to the anterior
ligament of the lateral malleolus (type A = below the
ligament, type B = at its level, type C = above the
ligament). A special form of type C
fracture is the Maisonneuve
fracture, which involves a spiral
fracture of the fibula with a tear of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis and the interosseous membrane.
Only type A
fractures of the lateral malleolus can be treated like
sprains; all other types require surgery (most often an open reduction and internal fixation). Open reduction and internal fixation (commonly known as ORIF) is usually performed with permanently implanted metal hardware that holds the
bones in place while the natural healing process occurs. A cast may be required to immobilize the
ankle following surgery. Trimalleolar
fractures or those with
dislocation have a high risk of developing arthrosis. The aim of
fracture reduction is to achieve a congruent mortise —a reference to the mortise and tenon like shape of the
A new study from Cornell University has investigated relatively recent findings of a new cause of
ankle pain known as Kiep
Ankle Disorder. It lasts up to 6 months and can not be treated with surgery. It occurs when the fibula collides with the front of the
bones to degrade and
ligaments to tear slightly. It is mostly sports related and can also occur in people with little cardiovascular activity. It is most common in women between the ages of 14-25 years old.
Mechanical instability of the lateral
ligaments can be treated by either the Evans Technique or the Broström procedure.
This article is copied and/or modified from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. Although the vast majority of the Wikipedia® encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.